Carbon Nanotube Fiber Poof Devices.

Carbon nanotube fibers can now be fabricated to be very light and very strong, and given their carbon structure (essentially a rolled up graphene) they are also conductive.

I posit the following: Take a bundle of gathered light nanotube fiber threads and charge it up to a high voltage, and the threads will all repel each other, forming a poof of conductive threads at high voltage. These will discharge into the first ground path they come into contact with. Now consider pulsing the high voltage as one would a tazer and you have a device that can deliver high voltage pulses within a much larger effective volume.

Consider much larger and longer bundles, deployed by rapidly unrolling them (similar to how police deploy spike strips), allowing the near instantaneous formation of huge poofs of electric uncomfortableness.

Suppose you wish to disable electronic devices such as a computer, and the only fast access is through ventilation slots. Just feed a thread bundle in, and charge it up, and voilá, sensitive electronics get zapped.

Now, set aside all of those weaponized versions, and consider a bundle of nanotube threads with an insulation coating. Now, you have safe(ish) threads that can be manipulated via electrostatic forces. Poofed up, or attracted to grounded objects, or repelled from charged objects; all permitting a plethora of useful applications.

Why is using a high voltage probe to burn wood more dangerous than, say, using a table saw?

Many amateurs have had success burning lichtenberg fractals into pieces of wood without incident, just as many woodworkers, including myself have used any number of potentially dangerous tools such as table saws, miter saws, circular saws, routers, and dremel tools. Each of those tools can cause massive traumatic injury or death, but by and large, the injuries from these tools are injuries to the hands resulting from momentary carelessness, or inattention. In order to cause fatal injuries, these tools must be used in such a way that an incident causes an injury to the neck or some other artery. Such incidents are much less common.

Contrary to conventional tools, the danger of high voltage burning probes are not isolated to a single, localized spinning blade or tool. Instead, the danger is “catching” in that, the probe is dangerous, but so is potentially any other metal or conductive material that the high voltage comes into contact with. Thus, a mishap with an enegized probe can occur more easily than with a rotating machine. Furthermore, high voltages in contact with a human body have the potential of damaging large portions of the body, and especially the heart. A typical high voltage contact will result in a localized burn at the contact point where the concentrated current enters the body, and potentially a localized burn at the exit point where current leaves the body. The current will naturally perfer to travel through the body through the medium which offers the least electrical resistance. Blood is electrically similar to salt water, and as such will be one of the perferred media. Thus, any high voltage contact incident which involves entrance on one limb, and exit from another, will result in an electrical current passing through the heart, which will cause undesired contractions of the cardiac muscle and can stop the heart temporarily or permanently. Because of this heart seeking, or perhaps heart perferring phenomenon, incidental high voltage injuries are more likely to cause death than incidental spinning blade injuries. In addition to the burns and potential heart injury, the current can also cause unwanted skeletal muscle contractions and failures resulting in flailings and falls that can lead to secondary injuries.

Thus, because of the somewhat incipient (or at least, spreadable) and heart-perferring hazard that can be caused by momentary carelessness or inattention when working with high voltages, additional safety measures are required above and beyond the simple plastic guards used to improve the safety of saws and rotating tools.

Positivism Applied: An example of a Positivistic Determination of Facts

Suppose that you observe what appears to be a man walking what appears to be a male dog. While you stand silently, you observe the man turn his head towards you and then change his walking direction towards you. The man stops walking in front of you and says, “Hello, I’m Richard, and this is my dog, Jabberwocky.”

There are some facts which may be deduced from these observations. These deductions are absolutely certain and 100% trustworthy because they are the observations. These facts are:
1. You observed what appeared to be a man walking what appeared to be a male dog.
2. While you stood silently, you observed the man turn his head towards you and then change his walking direction towards you.
3. You then observed the man stopping in front of you and saying, “Hello, I’m Richard, and this is my dog, Jabberwocky.

There are also many facts which may be INduced from these observations. These inductions are facts which require other facts to be true in order to be true. The inductions with the highest level of certainty are those for which the other facts upon which they rely are firmly established and reproducible scientific facts. Examples of these highly certain inductions are as follows:
1. The man and dog possess mass and are acted upon by gravity which can be induced by accepting that classical mechanics apply well to the situation, and by recalling that the man and dog did not fly away after pressing their feet down during the walking motion.
2. The man possessed a beating heart which can be induced from the man’s apparent vitality, ability to walk, and lack of distress.
3. The man was capable of seeing which may be induced from the turning of the head while you stood silently and the known operation of the sense of sight
4. The man has lungs, which may be induced from his apparent ability to speak, and because he appeared to be a human male which are well known to have lungs.

And there are still many others. The next set of facts are those which rely upon past experience and/or the trustworthiness of others. These are inherently less certain and trustworthy then the previously established groups of facts. Examples of these types of inductions are:

1. The man speaks and understands the english language, which is induced from past experience of people that have recited complete and intelligible english sentences can speak and understand english.
2. The dog’s name is Jabberwocky, which relies upon the man knowing and telling the truth.
3. The dog belongs to the man, which relies upon the dog and man walking together, and the man seemingly knowing the dog’s name, and an assumption that the man is walking someone else’s dog.
4. The man was not nude, which relies upon the fact that you did not note that the man was nude in the observations and that it has not been your experience to see any men walking their dogs in the nude.
5. The man’s name is Richard, which relies on the man knowing and telling the truth.
6. You and the man had not previously met, which relies upon your experience that people that you have already met tend not to reintroduce themselves upon meeting again.

And countless others. Many of the inductions in this group would reasonably require further investigation to improve their certainty or trustworthiness before they may be firmly relied upon for subsequent decisions.
And that is how a rationalist establishes and ranks the reliability of facts. If you are anything like me, you might be thinking, “OK, what other possible methods of establishing facts exist?”

There are other epistemological approaches. Suppose you met someone that was read the same few sentences of observations and you asked what facts they had learned and they said, “Richard is a good man.” Well, you might wonder what that is supposed to mean and ask, “What? Why?” To which they may well respond, “It makes me happy to meet other dog walkers, Richard made me happy, and so, Richard is good.” In this case the other person seems to be drawing conclusions about the outside world from their own internal emotions while simultaneously accepting past experiences and Richard’s trustworthiness as completely certain. And, as you may surmise, it may be very difficult for a rationalist to carry out a debate that doesn’t end in mutual confusion with someone with such a vastly different epistemology.



A Proposed Solution for U.S. Health Care

I couldn’t help but think about the issues with the healthcare system in the U.S. and while I was thinking I did come up with something that I think could be a potential solution.  I’m not sure that this is the objectively best solution, but I do think that it is pretty good.  Feel free to comment with discussion.


Statement of the Problem

1. People want access to health care to live longer and have a higher quality life.
2. Many licensed doctors and nurses exist or are in training and they should be allowed to profit from their efforts.
3. Health insurance companies exist and employ many people and must be able to profit if they are to continue to exist.

Proposed Solution:

1. Keep the professional licensing and regulatory system for doctors and nurses.
2. Deregulate health insurance to allow health insurance companies to do what they think they need to in order to profit, except deceive their customers, of course.
3. Create a federal clinic system to practice simplified, low training/checklist based diagnostics followed by simplified, rule based (computer aided) prescription, supplying of drugs, emergency services, and emergency surgeries. The employees of the clinics need not be doctors or nurses, or doctors and nurses in training except for those working the emergency triage and surgery. The other employees only need to be people that capably interpret and strictly follow checklists and rules. People will be charged for services received from the federal clinics, but prices will be minimal due to inherent efficiencies, and payments may be deferred in perpetuity for low income individuals. All of the practice of medicine in the clinics shall be protected from any malpractice litigation by sovereign immunity, but the diagnostic checklists, prescription practices, and surgical practices will be developed by and periodically reviewed by a review board of top doctors to insure that people are benefiting from the treatments.
4. Create a federal student loan program for doctors and nurses which requires either a partial paid residency in a federal clinic emergency room and surgery or the payment of a large penalty.

What this will do:

1. People will have access to medical care that will extend and improve the quality of their lives.
2. Licensed professional doctors and nurses will be able to work for private companies and as always, start their own practices which will be able to charge the prices they need to in order to profit. These private companies will continue to be able to develop and profit from new medical technologies.
3. Higher income (or simply fully employed) private individuals may choose to utilize doctors and nurses that are traditionally licensed, fully educated, and may be specialists.
4. The federal clinic will serve as a sort of “socialized” option that will exist alongside private healthcare providers and provide them with a base level of competition much like the USPS exists alongside UPS or Fedex and provides them with a reference level of competition.
5. Medical insurance will still be needed to allow people to deal with unforeseen massive expenses, so insurance companies will not be harmed.


What makes a good employee? (Part 2)

2.  Leaders, managers, and supervisors when needed shall be selected by two criteria; their ability to do the work that they will manage, and their ability to issue the right orders to ensure that the work gets done in the alotted time.  To prevent any violations of rule number 1:  Any subordinate employees shall not be permitted to refuse an order, and no leader shall be permitted to give an order which would bring harm to any person or the company.

Leaders will never be expected to be proficient in such things as “winning people over,” political campaigning, “swaying opinions,” “attracting followers,” or any other such unproductive activity.  The leaders need to know what to do and how to distribute the work by orders to others, they do not need to be able to get people to do favors for them in violation of rule 1.

In regards to the prohibition on harm:  This is not a prohibition on out-competing a competitor.  Company leaders are encouraged to defeat outside competitors by out-producing and out-innovating them while staying in accordance with the highest legal and ethical standards.  Competitions within the company must also be carried out with the highest legal and ethical standards in addition to compliance with rule number 1.




Crypto Power Transmission

An odd concept occured to me, in which a multiphasic system could be used to transmit power effectively only to authorized taps.  In a small scale digital system, this would consist of a transmitter circuit which would be a specially controlled switched mode power supply that would transmit power pulses into a three or more bus conductors with a nuetral return conductor.  These bus conductors would then be tapped by authorized devices through receiver circuits which have a key which allows them to predict and efficiently convert the pulses via switched mode decoders into the desired power to the tapped device.  Any unauthorized device would have to rely on predictive algorithms to try and guess the pulses in order to leech power.  The effectiveness of the cryptographic system could be mathematically determined by taking the ratio of the desired power over the actual power which can be leeched by the best possible predictive algorithms.  The goal of the design would be to get that ratio to be as high a number as possible.

In a larger scale AC system, the concept would be similar except more phases would be preffered.  In order to convert a three phase power system into a cryptopower system it would need to be rebuilt into a six or nine phase transmission line.  This is a necessity in order to ensure that the tranmitted pulses still aggregate such that there is little to no nuetral current.  So a three phase system would be converted to a nine phase cryptopower system by redistributing the A phase current to the a1, a2, and a3 phase conductors of the cryptopower system, and so on with the B and C phases in the same way such that a1 is related to the original A by the same proportion as b1 is related to B and c1 is related to C.  The effectiveness of the cryptography would again be computed by determining the ratio of ideal transmission to an authorized tap to the best possible transmission to a pirate tap.

There is at least one clear use for such a system.  In a situation where access to a power bus is for some reason physically unsecured (for ease of use or convenience, perhaps) this system could still limit power to unauthorized users or perhaps just provide a “preferred” power tap to authorized users with better efficiency then the unauthorized taps.

Update 2016-12-13

The key to this concept seems to be the switching speeds and switching losses of the PMOS or thyristor devices at the transmitting and receiving ends.  For instance if the transmitting end relies upon devices that can carry a great deal of current but cannot switch frequently, then a low power unauthorized device can take power just by measuring the incoming signals and responding accordingly with its much faster transistors.  Thus, it can be stated that any such crypto system can be “beat” by a device who’s power consumption is much less than the the capacity of the tranmitting source.  Similarly, the systems would all be theoretically vulnerable to technological advances.  If a crypto power system is constructed with current technology, it is feasible that superior switching devices can be created that would render the system completely insecure to new unauthorized devices.  Finally, any reasonably priced system would likely be vulnerable to custom cutting edge present day technology relying upon experimental or otherwise prohibitively expensive materials for tge tranmitting system.

For those reasons, crypto power transmission in the previously stated form seems too much trouble for its alleged benefit, especially when compared with alternative device credentialing systems.  For instance, when taps must be convenient and accessible by everyone, but the power use needs to be controlled, then the tap can deliver a challenge or series of challenges that only authorized devices can respond to correctly.  Take an airport power socket for example.  Each of those can be modified with series signal blocking inductors on the line and neutral, and then serial signals can be coupled on to the plug side line and neutral to transmit a challenge and receive a response from a plugged in device.  If the response is incorrect, then a relay opens the outlets circuits, leaving it dead except for occassional additional challenge transmissions.  Such a system could be beaten by bypassing the outlet, welding the relay contacts closed with an exceptionally large current surge, or by simple power sharing in which someone plugs in a power strip or splitter that appears to the outlet to be an authorized device.  Nevertheless, one would get a comparable system without the need for rewiring or for additional switched mode power supplies.

Thus, the previously described crypto power transmission technology is best relagated to a position as a “puzzle box” technology that could be incorporated into custom systems to delay, impede, and confuse unwary tinkerers, but that wouldn’t otherwise have any widespread usefulness.


Compressed Air Windmills

One of the things that I always keep an eye out for are ways in which to utilize the slow rotation/high torque of windmills without the need for expensive and high maintenance gear boxes.  The most common type of electric generating wind turbines rely on such a gear box to spin their generator’s rotor at the required speed, and to control the angle of the turbine blades for survivability and to provide an optimal power flow to the generator rotor.  I would like to propose a windmill design that requires at most one or two gears.  This windmill would be similar in appearance to common electric wind turbines with a tall mast with wind harvesting blades attached to a nacell.  However, instead of a gear box within the nacell there is a low speed/high torque air compressor which takes in filtered ambient air and compresses it.  This compressed air is fed into a buried storage reservoir for energy storage during windy periods.  The compressed air reservoir would then be tapped to directly supply compressed air for tooling use, to drive an electric generating turbine, and possibly to drive hirsch vortex tubes if local heating and cooling is needed.  Finally, and this is probably the most interesting aspect of the design, the angle of the blades of the turbine would not be mechanically rotated for control as they are in standard turbines, instead, the shape of the blades would be controlled pneumatically.  In other words, the compressed air generated by the turbine would be used to inflate control bladders on the blades to control what the blades do with the incident wind.  I think that with carefully chosen shape control bladders, these blades would be able to fail safely in a way that the current rigid blades could not.  In a high wind storm, for instance, a stuck mechanically controlled blade could cause a wind turbine to be torn apart, but with a shape controlled blade, a failed blade could be designed to simply deflate to a shape that diverts wind safely.

Update 10-14-2016

I had mentioned that Hirsch vortex tubes could be used to supply local heating and cooling, but I feel that I should expand on this and explain how it could contribute to the overall efficacy of the system.  The air compressor will naturally squeeze a great deal of heat out of the air it compresses when the wind is blowing.  Since the wind will be blowing, a primary air cooling system (a radiator design) is recommended for survivability.  In other words, the compressor should be able to survive its own heat generation as long as that air cooling system is functional.  However, a secondary heat exchange system could provide some added efficiency.  It is presumed that one of the more consistent uses of the compressed air generated by the windmill will be an electric generator.  This generator will naturally require heat to operate because expanding air absorbs ambient heat.  Therefore, to prevent the electric generator from icing up when the wind is blowing, a heat exchange system can be employed to bring heat from the compressor to that generator.  But, recall that the intent of the compressed air storage is to keep the electric generator running even after the wind stops blowing.  During such times the compressor will not be able to supply heat and another source is required.  Here is where the Hirsch vortex tubes can be utilized to keep the generator heated and operating at capacity.

In regards to the air compressor itself, I declared that a low speed-high torque air compressor would be employed, but I spoke little about the design of such a thing.  To make it low speed/high torque, the compressor will need to act upon a larger volume of air then common air compressor designs ever would, and it would be desirous for it to operate at a constant torque rather than a time varying torque to keep the blades from jerking in an alarming and mechanically dangerous way as it operates.  To achieve this constant torque, something akin to a multiple cylinder engine might be required, such that one of the cells is always in the compression phase as the others are intaking ambient air or exhausting compressed air.  A design similar to the Wankel engine except without the need for the ignition portion of the cycle, and copied several times to insure constant torque might accomplish these criteria in a scalable way.

Update 10-15-2016

The air compressor would require a means by which to manage its power output to match the rate at which the wind is blowing, because a pleasant zephyr simply cannot compress as much air as a gale.  For this, and in keeping with the proposed multi-chamber semi-Wankel engine, the compressor would employ a means by which to “turn off” the individual compression chambers.  This would not require any additional gearing, but would instead work by unsealing the compression chambers, allowing those unsealed cells to keep spinning without adding any additional load to the shaft except for its friction.  So, if the compressor has say, twenty chambers, then the number of chambers which are sealed at any given time could be selected from 0, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, etc.  Note that 1-7 cannot be selected because a minimum number of chambers is required to keep the torque constant and prevent blade jerking.

Update 10-17-2016

The blades of a wind turbine are a crucial aspect of the design, and the existing blade designs are engineered to accomplish many tasks simultaneously.  A typical wind turbine blade is a solid skin of light strong material that is given a perfect aerodynamic shape.  It is a balance of mechanical strength and utility, and as a testament to them, one of their greatest drawbacks seems to be that they are too large for standard shipping.

I have said above that I would want to eliminate the need to rotate the blades to control how they harvest the wind power.  This blade control shares some of the goals of the variable compressor loading that I described above.  The idea is that there is a mechanically optimal range of rotation speeds and drag forces for the turbine blades, and the blades are kept within those ranges by varying the amount of shaft load and by controlling the tilt of the turbine blades.

I propose that the same type of control which comes from changing the angle of attack of the turbine blades and an even greater level of control can be achieved using fixed blades that change their shape.  For this new blade deisgn I envision a central structural beam around which is constructed a light rigid frame which forms a wider circular column around the central beam.  This frame is then covered in a flexible and elastic wind-breaking material.  Spaced around the central beam at the openings in the rigid frame, are gas bladders or pneumatic piston actuators that, when inflated or actuated, press out against the elastic material to change its shape.  In order to “fail safe” the actuators or gas bladders would be spring returned or deflated such that if pneumatic control power is lost, the blade returns to its cylindrical shape and stops harvesting wind.  This design has two advantages over tilt blades.  Firstly, the active surface area of the blade can be finely tuned by changing how much of the blade is cylindrical as well as the angle of attack.  This means that for any wind situation or angle of attack, the controller or automated control program can decide if the blades are 100%, 75%, 27.3%, or 10% effectve area, whereas with a tilt blade, those percentages have a fixed dependence upon the angle of attack.  Secondly, with the central beam design and the flexible wind-breaking covering, it becomes possible to create blades that are shipped in pieces and quickly assembled on site at the time of construction.

There are a few extra things which need to be taken into account for such a design to work.  Firstly, I have said that the compressed air generated by the compressor could be used to power the blade pneumatic controls, this requires the use of some sort of device which allows the pressurized air to transition from the non-rotating tower column into the rotating blades, without losing pressure.  This device would be a special bearing.  Additionally, either electric power and control signals would need to be transferred through the bearing or an isolated pneumatic line for each actuator or bladder.  The minimal way to accomplish this is by putting electrical power through another special bearing (needing only two terminals), and then to transmit control signals wirelessly from a transmitter in the tower to receivers in the blades.  Those receivers then use a small amount of the electric power to switch the pneumatic control power to the desired actuators.

Next there is likely to be a need to quickly and easily maintain or replace the outer skin of the blades.  For this, it seems most reasonable to add some attachment points and other apparatus on the tower’s column to allow maintainance personelle to anchor one of the blades in its downward position, then cut off the old skin, and roll on a new skin from the tip of the blade to its base, not unlike an enlarged nylon stocking.

Update 10-20-2016

In regards to the compressed air energy storage, it is likely that the machines/tools operated by the compressed air will have an optimal operating pressure.  However, the pressure in the storage tank will have to be variable as the amount of energy stored will be a function of the pressure in that tank.  Therefore, it will be best to design the storage tank such that it is rated for pressures far in excess of the optimal operating pressures of the electric turbine and other devices.  Also, devices with relatively low optimal operating pressures should be preferred because the maximum pressure will be limited by the capabilitites of the compressor in addition to the rating of the tank.  Then, these lower operating pressure devices will be fed through dedicated pressure regulated secondary storage tanks.  These tanks will maintain the devices’ optimal operating pressures by means of a regulating valve that draws air from the higher variable pressure storage tank if and only if the pressure seems to be dropping below optimal within the secondary tank.  By this means, the electric turbines and pneumatic tools can be designed for operation at a single regulated pressure, rather than for the widely varying pressures of the storage tank.  This design will also mean that there will be a threshold pressure within the storage tank below which nothing will be able to operate. The energy remaining at this cutoff pressure would be unusable unless some means to up-regulate the pressure were to be employed.  Such an up-regulating device would, I think, have to be a compressed air driven air compressor, which may not end up being economically efficient enough to pay for itself.

Second Update 10-20-2016

This basic pressure down-regulating system should work reliably, but there is still a lot of inefficiency that seems like it should be eliminable.  Specifically, the energy stored in the pressure difference between the storage tank and the secondary tank is mostly lost.  In electronics, when you have a DC voltage that is too high, one of the efficient tricks used is to pulse that high voltage for short intervals through reactive devices that smooth it down to a constant lower voltage.  Unfortunately, when one is talking about mechanical compressed air valves rather than transistors, there are mechanical limitations to how fast switching can occur, and valves wear out at a much faster rate than transistors.  So, there is a better solution.  The compressed air driven electric turbine can be designed to operate in stages when the storage tank pressure is at high levels.  Each stage is its own self contained turbine, which operates at a single pressure differential and all of these stages power the same shaft.  The important part is that the outlet of each stage can be switched to drain into a pressure stroage vessel rather than to open air, and the inlet to each stage can be switched to any of these other storage vessels.  So, for instance, if each stage was designed to convert a 20 psi pressure differential into work and there were four stages and the main storage tank pressure was at 100 psi, then the device would be switched such that the first stage would get regulated 95 psi input and output air at about 75 psi into a storage container, that air would be down-regulated to 70 psi and fed into the second stage which outputs air at about 50 psi into another storage vessel which then gets down-regulated to 45 psi and fed into the third stage of the turbine which outputs about 25psi, and finally is regulated and fed into the fourth turbine.  Once the main storage tank pressure drops below 95 psi, the stages switch from a stack of four into two stacks of two, and when the pressure in the main storage tank drops below 50 psi, the stages switch to four parallel stacks of one.  This method allows for the preservation and use of more of the energy stored in the compressed air, at the cost of additional storage tanks, regulators and valves.

Third Update 10-20-2016

Finally, in regards to the main storage tank, it could be possible to make a constant pressure design rather than the variable pressure design that I have presumed above.  To accomplish this, one would take advantage of the existing tower construction of the windmill.  With this concept, a water tower is added to the windmill nacell.  This will contain a fixed volume of water that pushes down on a large compressed air storage piston in the base of the tower.  This piston will then have a constant pressure as determined by the weight of the water pressing down on it divided by the cylinder cross sectional area, and the amount of energy stored will be proportional to the volume of air within the piston.  This allows for a much more efficient extraction of the stored energy, at the cost of additional structural strength to support the water and the additional cost of the massive sealed piston design.  This water, could of course, be replaced with any other heavy material such as steel, dirt, scrap metal, or stones, but the water tower function could be tied to other local systems to ensure water pressure in local residences.  Indeed, this complex installation that I have envisioned seems like it could lend itself to a remote farming/other installation that could utilize nearly every aspect of the design:  The electricity from a compressed air turbine for normal houshold appliances, the compressed air for tooling, farming equipment, and water pumping, and the water tower for reliable water pressure.

Update 10-21-2016

A small but important improvement to the constant pressure storage tank piston concept:  Instead of a single massive piston, it would be better to use multiple smaller pistons which can be designed to be shipped preassembled.  With these multiple pistons designed to operate in parallel, any single piston could be removed from service for repairs or maintenance without taking the whole system offline.

Update 10-23-2016

Regarding the special bearing needed to take a pneumatic line line from a non-rotating frame to a rotating frame, care should be taken to avoid inadvertantly creating a tesla turbine or pump.  There will always be some torque exerted by this bearing on the rotor shaft with respect to the stator as a consequence of having to accelerate the flowing air from stationary to rotating or vice versa.  This torque will act to decelerate the shaft in a manner similar to friction, and it should be taken into consideration if high flow rates are required.  That is unchangeable, but the forces which the design can reduce are boundary layer forces.  These forces are exerted by a fluid traveling through a confined space and they act to pull the walls of that confined space along with the fluid.  This effect is especially prevalent in confined spaces, and can be reduced by giving the fluid more free volume to flow through.  Therefore, this bearing should be designed with a wide, sealed toroidal chamber with inflow evenly distributed at points around its outer circumference and with outflow evenly distributed at points around the rotating center shaft.  This causes the majority of flowing air to move radially with respect to the shaft, and therefore minimizes the amount of boundary layer torque.  Additionally, in order to minimize any reverse centrifugal pump action, the outlet holes should be at a minimal radius from the center of the shaft, and the inlet holes should be as close to the central side of the toroid as possible.  Imagine a donut, the inlet holes would be oriented closer to the donut hole side of the donut toroid then to the outermost radius of the donut.

Update 10-24-2016

The pneumatic control system within the blades of the windmill will always be subjected to additional pressure created by centrifugal forces that are proportional to the rotational speed of the rotor and the distance away from the center of rotation.  Because of these forces, each component must be able to resist misoperation when subjected to pressures outside of their normal operating range.  To quantify the problem, one must calculate the structural failure speed of the blades.  This will be the maximum design speed (with an added margin if desired), and is used to calculate the worst possible overpressures.  Each component must then be designed to operate properly at pressures up to and including that overpressure.


Update 10-25-2016

I’ve come up with an alternative blade design with the same adjustability, but without the outer covering which I foresee to be problematic.  It would still be a wide tapered structural column.  Within a section of this column would be arranged pneumatic pistons that can be extended.  Attached to the extensible end of these pistons would be the corner of a durable sail cloth material.  Within the column, the other two ends of the cloth would be wound around a spring returned spindle.  So, when the piston extends, a triangular section of sail cloth appears.  When the piston retracts, the cloth is retracted as well.  This design would be modular with each blade having two or three of these sails.  Each section would have at least four of these sails, arranged evenly around its circumference such that during normal operation, only two would be deployed.  Also, since pressurized pistons aren’t typically designed to handle transverse loading, the piston can be used to extend a sturdier structural arm such that that arm bears the wind load and the piston only needs to be designed for compression.  Finally, the extensible arms should be spring returned such that the blades return to a safe tapered cylindrical shape in the event of loss of control power.


Hypothesized need for a new law

There are two unforgivable evils (and numerous derivatives of those) that are allowed by the corporate business practice of requiring that new employees sign a statement which indemnifies past employers or other third parties.

The first is that any individual with sufficient cunning, wile, and manipulative ability could, with relative ease select a person of talent and begin a slander campaign until that person is fired. This attempt is self reinforcing because once it is started, the slanderer is at risk from the time the slander begins until the person of talents next engagement, which drives the slanderer to create worse and worse accusations. If the slanderer can succeed to develop a mythology that also keeps people from informing the target, then the slanderer can win emancipation from liability for the crime by waiting for, or even assisting the target in finding the targets next job with its accompanying indemnity.

The second unforgivable evil that is allowed by the business practice of blanket indemnity is the way it eliminates any possible benefit for right action when an employee is asked by an employer to commit a crime. In such a case, the right action for society is, of course, to report the criminal attempt of the employer to the police. However, with the business practice of providing blanket indemnity to third parties and past employers, an employer can fire any person that seems to be inclined to cooperate with the authorities, and then begin to slander said personages after indemnity is secured. Such a criminal employer would be eliminating any non-criminals not only from their place of business, but also any related business in the industry. Because of this, if an employee finds themselves asked to commit a crime by their employer, than the only way that they can act in their own best interest is to commit the crime, because acting in the best interest of society would result in complete loss of income.

I am searching for real world examples of these evils being put into practice. I suspect that I have been subjected to at least a derivative of the first of these but, I have little in the way of proof that defamation occurred, and I’ll bet that there are others in similar situations. However, in order to put together a reasonable case to get a law created to end this business practice, the existence of either or both of these evils needs to be proven severally.


Radioactivity_Sim’s first use: Feasibility of a radiation battery with unprocessed waste

Radioactivity_Sim’s first use: Feasibility of a radiation battery with unprocessed waste

I have proposed some concepts in past posts (Deeper understanding of mechanisms of fission waste radiation in the generating storage unit, Raw Fission Waste Photo-Generative Storage Unit) for the use of raw unprocessed fission reactor waste as a type of battery.  Since then I’ve created the Radioactivity_Sim program to help with the calculation of energy output rates for radioactive elements.  That program has reached the point where it can assist with some basic feasibility calculations for the photo-generative storage unit.

To see how much total energy is output by the waste, I created the following batch file which calculates the radiation decays during a 500g sample of wastes first year after creation (note that U238 and U235 daughter nuclei are presumed to be negligible in the sample due to fuel refinement):

Constructing a sample of uranium reactor waste (4% enriched uranium reacted with 80% efficiency):
new PSample 1.2145E24 U238 0 31556908.8 365
add PSample 1.012096E22 U235
add PSample 1.1578E20 KR85
add PSample 5.275E20 305KR85
add PSample 2.3197E21 SR90
add PSample 2.6323E21 ZR95
add PSample 2.6306E21 NB95
add PSample 2.4825E21 MO99
add PSample 2.4825E21 TC99
add PSample 1.2562E21 RU103
add PSample 1.6598E20 RU106
add PSample 1.6598E20 RH106
add PSample 1.7311E21 TE132
add PSample 2.8582E20 I129
add PSample 1.651E21 I131
add PSample 2.6679E21 I133
add PSample 2.5869E21 I135
add PSample 2.6719E21 XE133
add PSample 2.676E21 XE135
add PSample 2.5185E21 CS137
add PSample 2.5561E21 BA140
add PSample 2.4837E21 LA140
add PSample 2.3724E21 CE141
add PSample 2.2161E21 CE144
add PSample 2.2165E21 PR144
add PSample 9.036E20 ND147
add PSample 9.036E20 PM147
add PSample 4.2629E20 PM149
add PSample 1.7019E20 PM151
add PSample 1.7019E20 SM151
add PSample 5.9795E19 SM153
get PSample energy all > /home/user/git/Radioactivity_Sim/WasteEnergyCalcs
get PSample energy 0 86400 > /home/user/git/Radioactivity_Sim/WasteEnergyCalcs
get PSample energy 15552000 15638400 > /home/user/git/Radioactivity_Sim/WasteEnergyCalcs
get PSample energy 31449600 31536000 > /home/user/git/Radioactivity_Sim/WasteEnergyCalcs

I then ran the batch file with the Radioactivity_Sim_Terminal “read batch” command and got the following output:

Executing...: get PSample energy all > /home/user/git/Radioactivity_Sim/WasteEnergyCalcs

PSample Total Energy = 9.346707029909215E22 [MeV]

Executing...: get PSample energy 0 86400 > /home/user/git/Radioactivity_Sim/WasteEnergyCalcs

PSample Energy = 1.7076296176152554E22 [MeV], between t_start = 0.0 and t_end = 86400.0

Executing...: get PSample energy 15552000 15638400 > /home/user/git/Radioactivity_Sim/WasteEnergyCalcs

PSample Energy = 1.3419729369180246E19 [MeV], between t_start = 1.5552E7 and t_end = 1.56384E7

Executing...: get PSample energy 31449600 31536000 > /home/user/git/Radioactivity_Sim/WasteEnergyCalcs

PSample Energy = 7.8613820627348849E18 [MeV], between t_start = 3.14496E7 and t_end = 3.1536E7
Those are big numbers that look promising, but with some quick calcs I find:
Total energy: 9.3467E22[MeV/year]/6.21E18[MeV/J] = 15051[J/year]
First Day energy: 1.70763E22[MeV/year]/6.21E18[MeV/J] = 2749.8[J/day] = 31.83[mW](average power output)
Midyear energy: 1.34197E19[MeV/year]/6.21E18[MeV/J] = 2.161[J/day] = 0.025[mW](average power output)
End of year energy: 7.8614E18[MeV/year]/6.21E18[MeV/J] = 1.2659[J/day] = 0.01465[mW](average power output)

Even at the highest daily average energy output during the first day (31.83[mW]) the total power is too low for any practical harnessing, but even if it were a higher number, it would still include heat generation and other unharness-able output. in order for that original conceptual design to be feasible, there would probably need to be on the order of 1000[W] of power output. So what does all this mean? Basically, it is very unlikely that there will be a battery of this type that could generate enough energy during its life to recuperate its cost. Certain types of waste processing could be incorporated to maximize power output, but isotope separation techniques tend to require a lot of energy input which further decreases the overall lifetime utility of such types of batteries. I’m not willing at this time to say that researching better designs is futile, but it seems likely that such things might be better used in smaller applications where a long term battery is needed in the dark where PV’s can’t be used to charge a standard battery type.


Revised Bremsstrahlung X-ray Spectra Emitter

bremsstrahlun2X-rays are typically produced cheaply and effectively with specialized vacuum tubes which use a high applied voltage to accelerate electrons towards a target.  When the electrons are deflected by the electric fields within the atoms of the target, x-rays are emitted if the electrons were accelerated with enough energy.  This method tends to produce strong thin x-ray lines at or below the maximum kinetic energy imparted onto the electron by the acceleration.

In this device I propose a simplified version of the original design below, designed to emit a spectra of bremsstrahlung x-rays by impact with salt water that has an induced electric field at it’s surface.  Here the creeping of the water up the side of the vessel is deleterious to the E-field at the impact surface of the water.  The design would be further improved with the use of low density target conductors such as graphite or conductive polymers.


Original Design:

Bremsstrahlung X-ray Spectra Emitter

The device I propose would theoretically produce a wide spectra of x-rays from high energy beta- particles.  A rod containing a significant amount of thorium-234 is placed in the center of a water-tight chamber that is perhaps a third or quarter full of salt water.  This chamber is then placed in a second water tight chamber containing a similar amount of salt water.  Electrodes enter into the water from the bottom of the vessels.  A high voltage is introduced between the electrodes, causing the water at the edges of the inner vessel to accumulate charge and crawl up the sides of the glass.  The negatively charged electrode will be in the inner chamber, and the water in the inner chamber will be negatively charged.  An electric field will occur at the surface of the water in the inner chamber that will decelerate any incident negatively charged beta particles.  The electric field will vary based on the thickness of water between the point of impact and the glass wall, with a higher field being encountered where the water is thinnest.  The varying amounts of braking will then theoretically produce a spectra of X-ray wavelengths.  The produced x-rays will not, however, be the only radiation produced.  Th-234 decays into PA-234 which has a shorter half-life and produces a beta- particle with a high energy on the order of 2.2 MeV.  These particles will cause additional Cherenkov emissions.